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Topic: CBN $20 prefixes FIL-FIV  (Read 7344 times)
mmars
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« on: December 31, 2013, 04:59:41 pm »

The position number layout for all CBN polymer series issues is pretty basic.  Here is what the position numbers on the face of a sheet looks like:

01 11 21 31 41
0212223242
0313233343
0414243444
0515253545
0616263646
0717273747
0818283848
0919293949

Here is what the position numbers on the back of a sheet looks like:

41 31 21 11 01
4232221202
4333231303
4434241404
4535251505
4636261606
4737271707
4838281808
4939291909

Notice that no position numbers end in a zero (0).  This has the interesting effect of having all positions in a row ending with the same number, and that number corresponds to the row number.  For instance, in row 1, the position numbers are 01, 11, 21, 31, and 41.  When viewed from the front of the sheet, the position numbers rise from left to right.  When viewed from the back, the PNs descend from left to right.  Every note on the sheet has the same position number on the face and the back.

The physical layout never changes.  What does change is the numbering patterns of serial numbers.  Throughout the Journey series and starting into the polymer series, CBN numbered notes in columns, meaning the serial numbers would rise down one column, then go to the next column and continue.  For the first 9 prefixes of the $20 polymer series (FIL-FIV), numbering was in rows, going from left to right as seen on the back of the printed sheet.  That means the chronology of position numbers is as follows: 41, 31, 21, 11, 01, 42, 32, 22, 12, 02, 43, 33, ... , 49, 39, 29, 19, 09.  This pattern harkens back to the days of the Bird series, with a couple of significant differences.

Unlike the Bird series notes that were skip-numbered by 500, sheets with prefixes FIL-FIV were skip-numbered by 1,000.  Until now, CBN has never been known to use a split layout like their counterparts at BAI. Splitting the layout allows for two serial number ranges to be printed on the same sheet.  The ninth and final row of the layout is where prefix FIV was printed.  All notes with prefix FIV have position numbers ending in 9.  The first eight rows of the layout were used to print the other eight prefixes.  So at a skip-interval of 1,000, the first 40 positions of the layout created reams of 40,000 notes for prefixes FIL-FIU, while in the bottom row, reams of 5,000 notes were being made with prefix FIV.  At 10,000,000 notes per prefix, that's 250 reams per prefix for FIL-FIU, for a total of 2,000 reams over 8 prefixes.  Not coincidentally, when the 10,000,000 notes for prefix FIV are divided by 5,000 notes per ream, that means there are 2,000 "mini reams" of FIV notes.

Clearly, CBN planned the printing of the first ninety million $20 notes in a manner that allowed for two different prefixes to be printed on each and every sheet.  This technique was used previously by BAI, but the pattern of serial number offsets (the so-called "mega-sequences") was no greater than 32 reams.  CBN showed us that a pattern of offsets can be used over a much larger range which, in this case, is 2,000 reams.

What is not known at this time is whether CBN printed 1,000 sheets at a time or whether they were capable of keeping the numbering machines rolling for much longer runs.  Why do I ask this question?  Well, for one, CBN printed almost all of their Journey series notes with a skip-interval of 8,000, meaning that they could print 8,000 sheets at a time before the machine needed to be reset for the next batch.  Switching to a smaller skip interval would mean the machine would have to stop and be reset more frequently.  That's a distinct possibility if the printers wanted to be very careful to not make mistakes since polymer sheets with dozens of security features are very expensive and should not be wasted.  However, the newest issues of CBN-printed polymer notes seem to be universally skip-numbered by 200.  That is another subject for another discussion that I hope to post very soon.

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Rupiah
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« Reply #1 on: January 01, 2014, 06:09:28 pm »

Quote
The position number layout for all CBN polymer series issues is pretty basic. 

Thx for posting

I quickly glanced at the latest CPMS journal and saw that there was a write up by Brent and Gilles on this topic. I did not get a chance to read it but I am assuming that the analysis presented there draws similar conclusions. I believe the article mentions that the same numbering pattern as the FIL-FIV also applies to FMS-FMV with GHB as the -9 plate numbers

Quote
What is not known at this time is whether CBN printed 1,000 sheets at a time or whether they were capable of keeping the numbering machines rolling for much longer runs

However, the newest issues of CBN-printed polymer notes seem to be universally skip-numbered by 200. 

In all the analysis I have seen and reported on this matter there seems to be an assumption that the numbering machines need to be hand reset.

Aumber printing technology available for currency printing that can reset the numbering machines on the fly has been available for a while. It is all computer controlled with very little physical intervention required.

With this type of technology the numbers can be changed rather easily without disrupting the printing runs.

I would not be surprised if this is the case with some of the $100 polymers in the FK- prefix.

(Beyond that the extent of the runs will be dictated by the number of imprints each plate can make in offset printing - Printing industry professionals say that 100,000 imprints are common iwith 200,000 possible for these types of plates)

Combine this with the fact that the BoC has implemented a Single Note Inspection of new bank notes and they potentially have total control and knowledge over each and every single prefix-serial number combination that enters circulation and it is not hard to imagine that they can do what they really want. I believe the fact that one is seeing mixed bundles is a result of the Single Note Inspection system working.

In support of the last statement I provide you with the following statements from the job descriptions of positions posted at the BoC.

Quote
analyze and develop scheduling techniques to coordinate the shipments and deliveries for the bank note supply chain in the context of the single note inspection business model

Quote
adapt and provide the assessment of bank note serial number ranges for the printer in the context of the single note inspection business model

Quote
This is achieved by managing the supply chain efficiently from forecasting the bank note demand; negotiating cost-effective agreements with the substrate supplier, printer, single note inspection service provider and transportation carriers;

The above quotes from an ad from BoC website that was available at the time of this posting at (if the link does not work and if someone is interested I can forward an archived copy in pdf format):

http://clients.njoyn.com/CL2/XWEB/Xweb.asp?tbtoken=ZVxeRhsXCG91Yn10MlRSCCc6c2VEcFNackhYUF8PExdaXkUfUEcddWcDcwkbUhVQQHYqWA%3D%3D&chk=dFlbQBJe&CLID=60296&PAGE=JOBDETAILS&JOBID=J0613-0897&BRID=53357&UTM_SOURCE=NJOYN&UTM_MEDIUM=RSS&UTM_CAMPAIGN=PCANDIDATES&LANG=1

Wonder what paper money would say if it could talk?
mmars
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« Reply #2 on: January 01, 2014, 11:17:22 pm »

I quickly glanced at the latest CPMS journal and saw that there was a write up by Brent and Gilles on this topic. I did not get a chance to read it but I am assuming that the analysis presented there draws similar conclusions. I believe the article mentions that the same numbering pattern as the FIL-FIV also applies to FMS-FMV with GHB as the -9 plate numbers

My research is independent from the CPMS using raw data from the Serial Number Database.  I have not yet looked at the other denominations where this numbering technique is thought to be in use.

In all the analysis I have seen and reported on this matter there seems to be an assumption that the numbering machines need to be hand reset.

While we can't know with complete certainty what goes on at the printing facility, we have to make conclusions based on logical interpretations of the data.  Since the Bird series, skip intervals have increased, and this would seem to indicate that the printers are trying to implement numbering techniques that allow for a greater number of sheets to be printed before the machines have to be halted and reset.  Inflation and the growing need of circulating currency means having to find new efficient ways to print higher quantities of currency.

Aumber printing technology available for currency printing that can reset the numbering machines on the fly has been available for a while. It is all computer controlled with very little physical intervention required.

With this type of technology the numbers can be changed rather easily without disrupting the printing runs.

With the recent changes in numbering patterns favouring smaller skip intervals, this does appear to be the case, but whether it signifies a change to technological implementations or not is not absolutely known.  I am still struck by the fact that the fonts used on the newest polymer notes are the same as seen on 1979 series notes.  I think there are ways to adapt older printing machines so that they can produce new numbering techniques without resorting to a drastic overhaul of the printing infrastructure to bring in new computerized technology.  However, that's something I am saving for a future discussion of the importance of skip-200 printing.

(Beyond that the extent of the runs will be dictated by the number of imprints each plate can make in offset printing - Printing industry professionals say that 100,000 imprints are common iwith 200,000 possible for these types of plates)

You seem to be assuming that numbering of sheets is done in the same process as the rest of the printing of the design.  Serial numbers have always been added in a separate process after the printed sheets are ready.

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Rupiah
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« Reply #3 on: January 02, 2014, 11:46:13 pm »


You seem to be assuming that numbering of sheets is done in the same process as the rest of the printing of the design.  Serial numbers have always been added in a separate process after the printed sheets are ready.


Numbering can be done in the same process or can be done  later. This is based on standard practices in printing processes. The US bureau of printing an engraving has a place where you can see the printing and you can see this happen.

It would be much appreciated if you can kindly point to the evidence you are using to suggest that serial numbers have always been added in a separate process after the printed sheets are ready? I am certainly not aware about this.

In fact if the numbers were not printed in the same run then the need for replacing full sheets that are numbered would become significantly lower because it would only need to be done due to errors in printing numbers. Errors in printing numbers are by far less common than other printing related issues for which sheets have to be discarded

Most of the sheet replacement that happens is likely a result of non-number printing related issues. If number printing is done as a separate process (meaning separate press run) then it would much easier to find the defective sheets and remove them before the numbers are printed. Although this would result in wasted sheets it would not result in wasted serial numbered banknotes.

It is a known fact in the banknote printing industry (some google research can easily find useful information on this) that worst type of wastage is the one where banknotes with serial numbers have to be discarded.

In any case good luck with your research.







Wonder what paper money would say if it could talk?
BWJM
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« Reply #4 on: January 03, 2014, 01:54:51 am »

It would be much appreciated if you can kindly point to the evidence you are using to suggest that serial numbers have always been added in a separate process after the printed sheets are ready? I am certainly not aware about this.
The evidence of this is the notes themselves.  The serial numbers on all Canadian banknotes are all applied via letterpress (as opposed to intaglio or lithographic printing).  Whether the letterpress stage is done with or without the printed sheets sitting on a skid for a period of time is immaterial.  The fact remains that the serial numbers are applied at a different (and later) moment in time than any other element of the banknote.

BWJM
Member of CPMS, RCNA, ONA, ANA, IBNS, WCS.
President, IBNS Ontario Chapter.
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hdldddpd
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« Reply #5 on: January 08, 2014, 10:43:36 pm »

How does a person get access to the raw data in the SNDB?  There are a few things I am interested in researching as well it would be interesting to see what notes are entered and what part of Canada they are being entered.  It could also save time in entering s/n, you can see if you are actually contributing to the data or just piling on.

papa.charlie
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« Reply #6 on: April 15, 2014, 09:50:33 pm »

The position number layout for all CBN polymer series issues is pretty basic.  Here is what the position numbers on the face of a sheet looks like:

01 11 21 31 41
0212223242
0313233343
0414243444
0515253545
0616263646
0717273747
0818283848
0919293949

Here is what the position numbers on the back of a sheet looks like:

41 31 21 11 01
4232221202
4333231303
4434241404
4535251505
4636261606
4737271707
4838281808
4939291909


I've been thinking about the position numbers quoted above and I have a few question that I hope you guys could help explain to me:

1. wondering if anyone could explain the position numbers on the front and back of a polymer sheet from the example above? Maybe these aren't the same thing, but aren't the position numbers the same on the front and back of the polymer notes?

2. If there are 49 notes in a sheet, in what order are the serial numbers printed? Is it the same order as the position numbers? i.e. 0000000 at position 1 and 0000001 in position 2, etc...

3. When the sheets are cut into individual notes, how many sheets are typically stacked and cut at one time? Do the stacks make up the bundles we see in a brick?

Thanks for your help  :)

copperpete
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« Reply #7 on: April 26, 2014, 07:25:29 pm »

About your first question:

Don't forget that we speak about the whole sheet during all the printing process, so when the sheet is seen face on, the note on the upper right side (# 41)  will be seen on the upper left side (where the #41 is seen) when the entire sheet is flipped over (back side on).  Having the same FPN/BPN on each note, it's easier to follow the printing process and to spot any defaut on the printing blocks.

For the second question, I correct you for an error, there is 45 notes on a sheet, not 49 ;) 
I'm not sure about the other denominations (in Polymer), but for the 5$ Polymer (as far I can tell from my own research), the skip between each adjacent note is 200, in descending order, starting (for a given prefix) at 0000000 on the position #41, 0000200 on the #42, 0000400 at #42 and so on, 0001800 for #31, 0003600 on #21, 0005400 on #11, 0007200 on #01 and finish up to the #09 which will start at 0008800.
Each note will be numbered up to 0000199, 0000399, 0000599, etc. for each of their respective position.  Once all the numbers are printed, the entire sequence is shifted by 9000 and the new sequence restart at 0009000 (#41), and continues as described. 
If you do the calculation, after 1111 runs, you'll find that  after that, 9999000 notes are printed.  What happens for the 1000 last notes of a given prefix?  I don't know.  I've heard that they are simply not printed, but a simple verification to the SNDB shows a couple of notes (not in the 5$ however) having a serial in the 9999xxx range, so the hypothesis that they are not printed doesn't hold.  I don't have the necessary infos to draw a plausible hypothesis...Maybe others members can give a good explanation.

For your third question, a 200-sheets stack is fine to be cut in one shot, but it also may be splitted in two batches of 100 sheets each if it give better results on the final notes.  It's difficult to tell for sure...




papa.charlie
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« Reply #8 on: April 28, 2014, 05:13:33 pm »

Thanks copperpete, that's quite clear and makes good sense for the way I've seen bundles whereby the same position number is found on consecutively numbered notes up to xxxxx99 then a position number change.

 

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